Almudena Arcones, Marius Eichler, and I wrote a chapter for a book edited by the former EU COST Action “NewCompStar”. The chapter is titled “Electromagnetic Emission and Nucleosynthesis from Neutron Star Binary Mergers” and it is part of the book “The Physics and Astrophysics of Neutron Stars” published by Springer. In this chapter you can find a review of the current state of the art in the field of electromagnetic emission and nucleosynthesis from neutron star binaries (NS-NS and NS-BH systems).